Heat Flux Sensors

The thermoelectric modules are used mainly for temperature stabilization using Peltier effect – creating a temperature difference using electrical power. The opposite application method – creating electrical power using temperature difference (Seebeck effect) – is used in energy harvesting.

However, there is a another, third application area, where Seebeck effect is used – differential thermocouples. The construction of thermoelectric module is similar to the differential thermocouple matrix – TE module is based on alternation of two material types, connected in chain. While differential thermocouple matrix uses two different metals, TE module uses two types of Bi-Te semiconductor material (P- and N- types).

The advantage of thermoelectric module over differential thermocouple is in much higher level of Seebeck effect, exactly because of semiconductor materials usage. For example, in classical Copper-Constantan thermocouple thermal (electromotive force) is 38uV/K, while BiTe P-N couple inside in TEC has 400uV/K, ten times higher. This key advantage makes thermoelectric modules very perspective to use as heat flux sensors.


PL Engineering Ltd (thermoelectric coolers manufacturing company) has the unique technology with up to 600 couples per cm2, which is 10 times higher than regular solutions available. Together with bulk technology process and advanced materials it allows to create ultimate solutions for heat flux sensing applications, with key parameters exceeding in times any standard solution on the market.

PL Engineering introduce a new product range – new miniature heat flux sensors with ultra-high sensitivity level. The slides above show two key parameters for heat flux sensor – the sensitivity Se and integral sensitivity Sa. PL Engineering solutions have much higher sensitivity level comparing to any regular solutions available on the market (including relatively new thin-film thermoelectric types).

PL Engineering heat flux sensors are available in several different series – HTx and HFx.


Thermoelectric heat flux sensors with integrated temperature sensor Pt1000 Round shape. Self-calibrating patented method. 180cm FET cable with or without connector.
Standard solutions, quad shape, ultra-thin heat flux sensors w/o temperature sensors integrated. Self-calibrating patented method. 180cm FET cable with or without connector.